These studies employed XPS, AFM, Auger spectroscopy and SEM-EDS to characterize the surface properties of alloys and single-crystal alumina and polycrystalline ceramics materials.

The major differences between surface and bulk structures arise from the direct accessibility of surface molecules for reaction with adjacent phases, and the tendency for surface energy minimization to reach en equilibrium state, as mediated by the rearrangement of chemical groups, additive migration, and spontaneous adsorption of low-energy layers from the environment. The near-surface region plays a significant role, since it is involved in corrosion, biodegradation, controlled release and cell contact guidance phenomena.

The results of this work provided the basis for the explanation of effects observed to occur during service of these materials and led to the modification of the synthesis and manufacturing process of materials to meet clinical objectives.

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